The Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin, an English naturalist of the 19th century made an extensive study of nature for over 20 years. He collected the observations on animal distribution and the relationship between living and extinct animals and finally found that the present living animals share similarities to some extent not only between them but also with the other species that existed millions of years ago and among which some have become extinct. Carles Darwin is known as the father of evolution due to his contribution to the establishment of the theory of evolution.
What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular? What if species should offer residual phenomena, here and there, not explicable by natural selection? Twenty years hence naturalists may be in a position to say whether this is, or is not, the case; but in either event they will owe the author of "The Origin of Species" an immense debt of gratitude And viewed as a whole, we do not believe that, since the publication of Von Baer's "Researches on Development," thirty years ago, any work has appeared calculated to exert so large an influence, not only on the future of Biology, but in extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated.
More individuals are produced each generation that can survive.
Phenotypic variation exists among individuals and the variation is heritable. Those individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive. When reproductive isolation occurs new species will form. Another important evolutionary theorist of the same period was the Russian geographer and prominent anarchist Peter Kropotkin who, in his book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolutionadvocated a conception of Darwinism counter to that of Huxley.
His conception was centred around what he saw as the widespread use of co-operation as a survival mechanism in human societies and animals. He used biological and sociological arguments in an attempt to show that the main factor in facilitating evolution is cooperation between individuals in free-associated societies and groups.
This was in order to counteract the conception An explication of charles darwins theory of evolution fierce competition as the core of evolution, which provided a rationalization for the dominant political, economic and social theories of the time; and the prevalent interpretations of Darwinism, such as those by Huxley, who is targeted as an opponent by Kropotkin.
Kropotkin's conception of Darwinism could be summed up by the following quote: In the animal world we have seen that the vast majority of species live in societies, and that they find in association the best arms for the struggle for life: The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress.
The mutual protection which is obtained in this case, the possibility of attaining old age and of accumulating experience, the higher intellectual development, and the further growth of sociable habits, secure the maintenance of the species, its extension, and its further progressive evolution.
The unsociable species, on the contrary, are doomed to decay. One of the more prominent approaches, summed in the phrase " survival of the fittest " by Herbert Spencer, later became emblematic of Darwinism even though Spencer's own understanding of evolution as expressed in was more similar to that of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck than to that of Darwin, and predated the publication of Darwin's theory in What is now called " Social Darwinism " was, in its day, synonymous with "Darwinism"—the application of Darwinian principles of "struggle" to society, usually in support of anti- philanthropic political agenda.
Another interpretation, one notably favoured by Darwin's half-cousin Francis Galtonwas that "Darwinism" implied that because natural selection was apparently no longer working on "civilized" people, it was possible for "inferior" strains of people who would normally be filtered out of the gene pool to overwhelm the "superior" strains, and voluntary corrective measures would be desirable—the foundation of eugenics.
In Darwin's day there was no rigid definition of the term "Darwinism", and it was used by opponents and proponents of Darwin's biological theory alike to mean whatever they wanted it to in a larger context. The ideas had international influence, and Ernst Haeckel developed what was known as Darwinismus in Germany, although, like Spencer's "evolution", Haeckel's "Darwinism" had only a rough resemblance to the theory of Charles Darwin, and was not centered on natural selection.
The latter was denied by Wallace who was a strict selectionist. Reviewing the film for Scientific AmericanJohn Rennie says "The term is a curious throwback, because in modern biology almost no one relies solely on Darwin's original ideas Yet the choice of terminology isn't random: Ben Stein wants you to stop thinking of evolution as an actual science supported by verifiable facts and logical arguments and to start thinking of it as a dogmatic, atheistic ideology akin to Marxism.
Darwinism also is used neutrally by historians to differentiate his theory from other evolutionary theories current around the same period. For example, Darwinism may be used to refer to Darwin's proposed mechanism of natural selection, in comparison to more recent mechanisms such as genetic drift and gene flow.
It may also refer specifically to the role of Charles Darwin as opposed to others in the history of evolutionary thought —particularly contrasting Darwin's results with those of earlier theories such as Lamarckism or later ones such as the modern evolutionary synthesis.
In political discussions in the United States, the term is mostly used by its enemies. He adds, "Scientists don't call it 'Darwinism'. Describing himself as non-religious and as accepting the concept of natural selection as a well-established fact, Stove nonetheless attacked what he described as flawed concepts proposed by some "Ultra-Darwinists.
Philosopher Simon Blackburn wrote a rejoinder to Stove,  though a subsequent essay by Stove's protegee James Franklin 's  suggested that Blackburn's response actually "confirms Stove's central thesis that Darwinism can 'explain' anything.Charles Darwin was born into a moderately wealthy family in Shrewsbury, England.
His father, Robert, had the largest medical practice outside of London at the time and his mother, Susannah Wedgwood, was from a family of wealthy pottery manufacturers.
Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of biological evolution by natural selection. Darwin defined evolution as "descent with modification," the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species, and share a common ancestor.
Summary of Darwin's Theory of Evolution A species is a population of organisms that interbreeds and has fertile offspring. Living organisms have descended with modifications from species that. The Theory of Evolution based on the process of Natural Selection was first propounded by Charles Darwin in his book 'On the Origin of Species' published in In the same book, Darwin also maintained that all the species have descended from a common genetic pool.
The theory of evolution is a scientific theory that essentially states that species change over time. There are many different ways species change, but most of them can be described by the idea of natural selection.
The theory of evolution through natural selection was the first scientific theory. Carles Darwin is known as the father of evolution due to his contribution to the establishment of the theory of evolution.
His theory helped in removing all the conventional old believes which said that the formation of various species was a supernatural phenomenon or act of the Almighty.