Who Were the Presocratic Philosophers? Our understanding of the Presocratics is complicated by the incomplete nature of our evidence. Instead, we are dependent on later philosophers, historians, and compilers of collections of ancient wisdom for disconnected quotations fragments and reports about their views testimonia. In some cases, these sources had direct access to the works of the Presocratics, but in many others, the line is indirect and often depends on the work of Hippias, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Simplicius, and other ancient philosophers who did have such access.
Famous Scientists B. Thales of Miletus - Greek philosopher; developed theory of matter based upon water; recorded the attractive properties of rubbed amber and lodestone.
Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all and said that the universe is ruled by logos; he always urged that close attention be given to the polarites and concealed structures emodied in language.
His famous claim that an idividual can and cannot step into the same river twice reveals an interest in criteria of unity and identity; even though all material constituents have undergone change, it is still, in a sence, the same river.
Preoccupied with change, he declared that fire is the central element of the universe, and he postulated a world with no beginning and no end Pythagoras - Greek philosopher and mathematician; held that numbers were basic to matter; the Pythagorean Theorem is named for his geometric formulation; developed atomic theory; students of his philosophy emphasized geometrical form as a basic property of atoms; developed mathematical relationships which led to musical harmony.
Empedocles - Some suggest c. To account for real change, he assumed that there must be more than one kind of matter, and he postulated four roots as elements; earth, air, fire, and water. Love and hate were considered principles of attraction and repulsion that alternately dominated the universe in a recurring cycle.
Empedocles presented a kind of biological theory of natural selection in an imaginative poem, On Nature. He also played an importqant role in the development of the Western or Sicilian school of Greek medicine. He cured a plague at the Sicilian city of Selinus and claimed he was a god.
One legend, which forms the basis of Matthew Arnold's poem Empedocles on Etna, held the Empedocles, tired of life and wanting people to believe that the gods had taken him with them, committed suicide by leaping into the crater of Mt.
Socrates - Greek philosopher; emphasized the study of human nature in relationship to society; influence the growth of science through standards for clear definitions and classifications, for logic and order, and for prudent skepticism. Democritus of Abdera - Greek philosopher; pupil of Leucippus; developed atomic theory; elaborated idea that matter consisted of atoms having physical size and shape which constantly moved in a void and interacted in different ways; Greek word atoma means indivisible.
Leucippus - proposed an atomic concept of matter. Plato - Greek philosopher; pupil of Socrates; dealt with the nature of the universe; developed atomic theory of chemical change; ascribed geometric forms composed of bounding planes to the elements of earth, fire, air and water based upon their physical properties; held that elements could convert into one another through rearrangement of bounding planes; used deductive reasoning as a learning method.
Aristotle - updated engraving; Greek philosopher, educator and scientist; undertook a large-scale classification of plants and animals; introduced a method of scientific thinking that still plays a role today.
Epicurus - Greek philosopher; founded the system known as Epicureanism. He studied with followers of Plato and Democritus before opening his school in Athens.
The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. This, coupled with Epicurus' teachings concerning pleasure, led to public criticism of the school as a scene of debauchery. In reality, life there was fairly austere. Most of the writings of Epicurus have been lost.
Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos On Naturewere recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD Zeno of Cition - Greek philosopher; founded the Stoic school of philosophy which held that matter, space, etc.A physicist is a scientist who specializes in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physicists generally are interested in the root or ultimate causes of phenomena, and usually frame their understanding in mathematical tranceformingnlp.comists work across a wide range of research fields, spanning all length.
After the Flood, by Bill Cooper. Chapter 1 The Knowledge of God amongst the early Pagans.
So that we may bring the subject we are about to study into its proper perspective, we must first allow that many of our preconceptions regarding ancient .
The Presocratics were 6 th and 5 th century BCE Greek thinkers who introduced a new way of inquiring into the world and the place of human beings in it. They were recognized in antiquity as the first philosophers and scientists of the Western tradition.
This article is a general introduction to the most important Presocratic philosophers and the main themes of Presocratic thought. Draco: Draco,, Athenian lawgiver whose harsh legal code punished both trivial and serious crimes in Athens with death—hence the continued use of the word draconian to describe repressive legal measures.
The six junior archons (thesmotetai), or magistrates, are said by Aristotle to have been instituted in. Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of tranceformingnlp.com primary objects of study are matter and energy.
Physics is, in one sense, the oldest and most basic academic pursuit; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world.
B.C. Thales of Miletus - Greek philosopher; developed theory of matter based upon water; recorded the attractive properties of rubbed amber and lodestone.: c B.C.
Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; .